What is Git?
Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. It outclasses SCM tools like Subversion, CVS, Perforce, and ClearCase with features like cheap local branching, convenient staging areas, and multiple workflows.
What’s New on Git 2.25.1?
Git 2.25.1 Release Notes ======================== Fixes since v2.25 ----------------- * "git commit" gives output similar to "git status" when there is nothing to commit, but without honoring the advise.statusHints configuration variable, which has been corrected. * has_object_file() said "no" given an object registered to the system via pretend_object_file(), making it inconsistent with read_object_file(), causing lazy fetch to attempt fetching an empty tree from promisor remotes. * The code that tries to skip over the entries for the paths in a single directory using the cache-tree was not careful enough against corrupt index file. * Complete an update to tutorial that encourages "git switch" over "git checkout" that was done only half-way. * Reduce unnecessary round-trip when running "ls-remote" over the stateless RPC mechanism. * "git restore --staged" did not correctly update the cache-tree structure, resulting in bogus trees to be written afterwards, which has been corrected. * The code recently added to move to the entry beyond the ones in the same directory in the index in the sparse-cone mode did not count the number of entries to skip over incorrectly, which has been corrected. * Work around test breakages caused by custom regex engine used in libasan, when address sanitizer is used with more recent versions of gcc and clang. * "git fetch --refmap=" option has got a better documentation. * Corner case bugs in "git clean" that stems from a (necessarily for performance reasons) awkward calling convention in the directory enumeration API has been corrected. * "git grep --no-index" should not get affected by the contents of the .gitmodules file but when "--recurse-submodules" is given or the "submodule.recurse" variable is set, it did. Now these settings are ignored in the "--no-index" mode. * Technical details of the bundle format has been documented. * Unhelpful warning messages during documentation build have been squelched. Also contains various documentation updates, code clean-ups and minor fixups.
Branching and Merging
The Git feature that really makes it stand apart from nearly every other SCM out there is its branching model.
Git allows and encourages you to have multiple local branches that can be entirely independent of each other. The creation, merging, and deletion of those lines of development takes seconds.
This means that you can do things like:
- Frictionless Context Switching. Create a branch to try out an idea, commit a few times, switch back to where you branched from, apply a patch, switch back to where you are experimenting, and merge it in.
- Role-Based Codelines. Have a branch that always contains only what goes to production, another that you merge work into for testing, and several smaller ones for day to day work.
- Feature Based Workflow. Create new branches for each new feature you’re working on so you can seamlessly switch back and forth between them, then delete each branch when that feature gets merged into your main line.
- Disposable Experimentation. Create a branch to experiment in, realize it’s not going to work, and just delete it – abandoning the work—with nobody else ever seeing it (even if you’ve pushed other branches in the meantime).
Small and Fast
Git is fast. With Git, nearly all operations are performed locally, giving it a huge speed advantage on centralized systems that constantly have to communicate with a server somewhere.
Git was built to work on the Linux kernel, meaning that it has had to effectively handle large repositories from day one. Git is written in C, reducing the overhead of runtimes associated with higher-level languages. Speed and performance has been a primary design goal of the Git from the start.
Let’s see how common operations stack up against Subversion, a common centralized version control system that is similar to CVS or Perforce. Smaller is faster.
One of the nicest features of any Distributed SCM, Git included, is that it’s distributed. This means that instead of doing a “checkout” of the current tip of the source code, you do a “clone” of the entire repository.
This means that even if you’re using a centralized workflow, every user essentially has a full backup of the main server. Each of these copies could be pushed up to replace the main server in the event of a crash or corruption. In effect, there is no single point of failure with Git unless there is only a single copy of the repository.
Because of Git’s distributed nature and superb branching system, an almost endless number of workflows can be implemented with relative ease.
A centralized workflow is very common, especially from people transitioning from a centralized system. Git will not allow you to push if someone has pushed since the last time you fetched, so a centralized model where all developers push to the same server works just fine.
The data model that Git uses ensures the cryptographic integrity of every bit of your project. Every file and commit is checksummed and retrieved by its checksum when checked back out. It’s impossible to get anything out of Git other than the exact bits you put in.
Unlike the other systems, Git has something called the “staging area” or “index”. This is an intermediate area where commits can be formatted and reviewed before completing the commit.
One thing that sets Git apart from other tools is that it’s possible to quickly stage some of your files and commit them without committing all of the other modified files in your working directory or having to list them on the command line during the commit.
Free and Open Source
Git is released under the GNU General Public License version 2.0, which is an open source license. The Git project chose to use GPLv2 to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users.
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